OPINIONS Belt and Road Cooperation: Shaping a Brighter Shared Future

OPINIONS

Belt and Road Cooperation: Shaping a Brighter Shared Future

China Daily

09:39, April 28, 2019

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Chinese ambassador Chen Li. (Photo: Global Times)

Joint Communique of the Leaders' Roundtable of the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation

1. We, President Xi Jinping of the People's Republic of China, President Ilham Aliyev of the Republic of Azerbaijan, President Alexander Lukashenko of the Republic of Belarus, His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah of Brunei Darussalam, President Sebastián Piñera Echenique of the Republic of Chile, President Nicos Anastasiades of the Republic of Cyprus, President Miloš Zeman of the Czech Republic, President Ismail Omar Guelleh of the Republic of Djibouti, President Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi of the Arab Republic of Egypt, the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan-Elbasy Nursultan Nazarbayev, President Uhuru Kenyatta of the Republic of Kenya, President Sooronbai Zheenbekov of the Kyrgyz Republic, President Bounnhang Vorachith of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, President Khaltmaagiin Battulga of Mongolia, President Filipe Jacinto Nyusi of the Republic of Mozambique, President Bidya Devi Bhandari of Nepal, President Rodrigo Roa Duterte of the Republic of the Philippines, President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa of the Portuguese Republic, President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation, President Aleksandar Vuč ić of the Republic of Serbia, President Ueli Maurer of the Swiss Confederation, President Emomali Rahmon of the Republic of Tajikistan, President Shavkat Mirziyoyev of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Vice President and Prime Minister H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of Dubai, Chancellor Sebastian Kurz of the Republic of Austria, Prime Minister Hun Sen of the Kingdom of Cambodia, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras of the Hellenic Republic, Prime Minister Orbán Viktor of Hungary, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte of the Italian Republic, Prime Minister Mahathir Bin Mohamad of Malaysia, State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Prime Minister Imran Khan of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Prime Minister Peter O'Neill of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong of the Republic of Singapore, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha of the Kingdom of Thailand, Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, and Vice President Jusuf Kalla of the Republic of Indonesia, met in Beijing on 27 April 2019 for the Leaders' Roundtable of the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation themed on Belt and Road Cooperation: Shaping a Brighter Shared Future. We also welcome the participation of Secretary-General António Guterres of the United Nations and Managing Director Christine Lagarde of the International Monetary Fund. The Leaders' Roundtable was chaired by President Xi Jinping of the People's Republic of China.

2. We met at a time when the world economy is facing both expanding opportunities and rising challenges, complicated by profound and rapid changes in the world. We reaffirm that strengthening multilateralism remains essential in addressing global challenges. We also believe that an open, inclusive, interconnected, sustainable and people-centered world economy can contribute to prosperity for all.

3. Recalling the Joint Communique of the Leaders' Roundtable of the 1st Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, including the cooperation objectives, principles and measures contained therein, and reaffirming our commitment to the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we reiterate that promoting peace, development and human rights, mutually-beneficial cooperation, and honoring the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and international law are our common responsibilities; achieving strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth and improving people's quality of life are our common goals; creating a prosperous and peaceful world with shared future is our common aspiration.

4. The ancient Silk Road contributed to the strengthening of the connectivity and the expansion of the world economy in the spirit of promoting peace and cooperation, openness, inclusiveness, equality, mutual learning and mutual benefit. We look forward to restoring and rejuvenating such spirit, through the Belt and Road Initiative and other cooperation frameworks and initiatives.

5. As cooperation partners, we appreciate the progress already made and important opportunities created in the Belt and Road cooperation, especially the outcomes in areas such as development policy synergy, increased infrastructure investment, economic corridors, economic and trade cooperation zones, industrial parks, finance and trade cooperation, innovation and technology, maritime cooperation, business-to-business ties, people-to-people and cultural exchange. Such cooperation explores new sources of growth and offers potential for economic and social development, and contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

6. Looking into the future, we envisage high-quality Belt and Road cooperation in enhancing connectivity by promoting development policy synergy, infrastructure development, unimpeded trade, financial cooperation and people-to-people bond, thereby enhancing practical cooperation for the well-being of our peoples. In this context, we look forward to more efforts by cooperation partners.

・ Such cooperation will be based on extensive consultation, joint efforts, shared and mutual benefits. We emphasize the importance of the rule of law and equal opportunities for all. We endeavor to move on with policy and project cooperation through voluntary participation and consensus-building, based on common responsibility and outcomes. All states are equal partners for cooperation that respects openness, transparency, inclusiveness and level playing field. We respect sovereignty and territorial integrity of each other and affirm that each country has the right and primary responsibility to define its development strategies in accordance with its national priorities and legislation.

・ Such cooperation will be open, green and clean. We embrace open economy and inclusive, non-discriminatory global market. All interested countries are welcome to join in such cooperation. We underline the importance of promoting green development and addressing the challenges of environmental protection and climate change including by enhancing our cooperation to implement the Paris Agreement. We encourage more efforts in building a culture of integrity and combating corruption.

・ Such cooperation will pursue high standard, people-centered and sustainable development. We will work together in line with our national legislation, regulatory frameworks, international obligations, applicable international norms and standards. We believe that relevant cooperation should be people-centered and conducive to inclusive quality economic growth and broad-based improvement of people's livelihood. We are committed to promoting sustainability in all its dimensions.

7. We start from the conviction that connectivity contributes to boosting growth, economic and social development, trade in goods and services, as well as investment and creating employment opportunities and better communication and exchanges among peoples. In this regard, promoting global partnership on connectivity, based on transparency, openness and inclusiveness, provides an opportunity for all. Today, through such partnership including the Belt and Road Initiative and other cooperation strategies, we resolve to promote international cooperation, at sub-regional, regional and global levels aiming at a brighter shared future and common prosperity. We support a universal, rules-based, open, transparent and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system with WTO at its core.

Strengthening Development Policy Synergy

8. To sustain common development, we welcome sound macroeconomic policies, encourage discussions with regard to Sustainable Development Agenda and will work together to enhance macroeconomic policy dialogue at the UN and other multilateral fora, and promote synergies among related development plans and connectivity initiatives based on the progress already made.

9. In this regard, we also emphasize the opportunities arising from the initiatives and cooperation frameworks, including, inter alia, the ACMECS Master Plan (2019-2023), the African Union including Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), APEC Connectivity Blueprint, the Arab League, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) including Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity 2025, ASEAN Smart Cities Network and ASEAN Initiative on Connecting the Connectivities, ASEM Pathfinder Group on Connectivity, BIMP-East ASEAN Growth Area, Central Asian Connectivity, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Dubai Silk Road Strategy, EU strategy on connecting Europe and Asia, EU-China Connectivity Platform, EU Eastern Partnership, Eurasian Economic Union, Eurasian partnership, Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), Global Infrastructure Connectivity Alliance, International G-Global Project, Lancang-Mekong Cooperation, Organization of American States, Pacific Alliance, Pacific Islands Forum, Union for the Mediterranean and those sub-regional and regional cooperation initiatives between all partners.

10. Determined to pursue trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, we aspire to further open our markets, reject protectionism, unilateralism and other measures that are incompatible with WTO rules. We highlight the importance of special and differential treatment in accordance with WTO agreements.

11. We recognize the importance of improving customs facilitation including by encouraging better cooperation and coordination of relevant agencies involved in border clearance, mutual assistance, information sharing and cooperation, streamlining customs and transit procedures. We encourage such facilitation to be consistent with the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement and accompanied by efficient and effective controls to, inter alia, prevent illicit trade and fight fraud.

12. We call for strengthened cooperation on foreign direct investment and joint ventures in the context of our national laws and international commitments, and encourage an enabling and predictable environment for the promotion of investment and new business opportunities.

13. We intend to enhance cooperation in tax matters, encourage more agreements on avoidance of double taxation, and promote growth-friendly tax policies. To achieve these goals, we aim to work within existing international taxation cooperation frameworks.

14. We endeavor to forge inclusive and diversified global value chains, beneficial to all partners. We encourage greater cooperation on innovation, while protecting intellectual property rights. We also encourage the introduction of digital transport accompanying documents.

15. We support the development of sustainable blue economy and call for further developing maritime links and intensifying international maritime cooperation, including among ports and shipping industries, while sustainably managing marine and coastal ecosystems.

Boosting Infrastructure Connectivity

16. To sustain interconnected growth, we support comprehensive and multi-modal infrastructure connectivity, fostering economic growth and improving the standards of living catalyzed by infrastructure investment. We support policies and activities that help land-locked countries to transform into land-linked ones, including by strengthening connectivity and cooperation on transit arrangements and infrastructure.

17. We will strive to build high-quality, reliable, resilient and sustainable infrastructure. We emphasize that high-quality infrastructure should be viable, affordable, accessible, inclusive and broadly beneficial over its entire life-cycle, contributing to sustainable development of participating countries and the industrialization of developing countries. We welcome developed countries and international investors to invest in connectivity projects in the developing countries. We emphasize the importance of economic, social, fiscal, financial and environmental sustainability of projects, while striking a good balance among economic growth, social progress and environmental protection.

18. In the interest of sustainability, we support improving cooperation in project preparation and implementation, to promote projects that are investable, bankable, economically viable and environment-friendly. We call on all market players in the Belt and Road cooperation to fulfill their corporate social responsibility and follow the principles of UN Global Compact.

19. We acknowledge that transport infrastructure constitutes a foundation of connectivity. We encourage the development of interoperability of infrastructure to enhance air, land and sea connectivity among countries, including through interoperable and multi-modal transport. We recognize the importance of development of trans-regional transport and logistic routes including the ones connecting Central Asia with Caucasus, Europe, Africa, South and Southeast Asia and the Pacific region to increase its transport and communication potential.

20. We support strengthening energy infrastructure, in order to enhance energy security and to promote global access to affordable, clean, renewable and sustainable energy for all.

21. We aim to enhance connectivity among financial markets, in accordance with respective national laws and regulations as well as international commitments, while bearing in mind the importance of financial inclusion.

Promoting Sustainable Development

22. To promote sustainable and low-carbon development, we appreciate the efforts to foster green development towards ecological sustainability. We encourage the development of green finance including the issuance of green bonds as well as development of green technology. We also encourage exchanges of good practices on ecological and environmental policies towards a high level of environmental protection.

23. Determined to protect the planet from degradation, we look forward to a climate resilient future and enhance our cooperation in areas such as environment protection, circular economy, clean energy and energy efficiency, sustainable and integrated water resources management including support to the countries adversely affected by climate change, in line with internationally agreed principles and obligations so as to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions-economic, social and environmental-in a balanced and integrated manner. We support the implementation of the UN resolution on Midterm Comprehensive Review of the International Decade for Action, "Water for Sustainable Development", 2018-2028.

24. We encourage more cooperation in sustainable agriculture, forestry and protecting biological diversity. We agree to promote cooperation in resilience and disaster-risk reduction and management.

25. We support international anti-corruption cooperation and work towards zero tolerance in anti-corruption, consistent with national laws and regulations. We call for more international cooperation in line with our applicable respective obligations under international conventions, such as UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and relevant bilateral treaties. We look forward to strengthening international cooperation and exchanges of good practices and practical cooperation.

Strengthening Practical Cooperation

26. To achieve and sustain shared prosperity, practical cooperation should be strengthened. Such cooperation needs to be people-centered, result-based and growth-oriented, in accordance with market rules and our respective legal frameworks supported by the government when necessary. We encourage the participation by enterprises from all countries in the cooperation, including micro, small and medium enterprises. We highlight the importance of open, transparent and non-discriminatory public procurement procedures in accordance with national laws and regulations and welcome the exchanges of good practices.

27. We support continued efforts to build on the progress already made in developing economic corridors and economic and trade cooperation zones as annexed as well as other cooperation projects across all areas related to the Belt and Road Initiative, and further cooperation on value chains, industry chains and supply chains.

28. We will continue our efforts towards strengthening multi-modal transportation including inland waterways in landlocked countries, roads, railway networks, air, land and sea ports and pipelines in line with international law and respective domestic laws. We encourage digital infrastructure including transnational fiber-optic highways, promoting e-commerce and smart cities, and helping narrow the digital divide while drawing on international good practices.

29. We encourage third-market, tripartite cooperation and Public Private Partnership (PPP) cooperation and welcome more efforts by enterprises and relevant international organizations consistent with national laws and regulations. We welcome legal cooperation, including the availability of dispute resolution services and legal assistance for the business sector.

30. We support collaboration among national and international financial institutions to provide diversified and sustainable financial supports for projects. We encourage local currency financing, mutual establishment of financial institutions, and a greater role of development finance in line with respective national priorities, laws, regulations and international commitments, and the agreed principles by the UNGA on debt sustainability. We encourage multilateral development banks and other international financial institutions to reinforce their support to connectivity projects in fiscally sustainable ways as well as the mobilization of private capital into projects in line with local needs.

31. We stress the importance of the development of water-saving technologies and agricultural innovations as an important component providing food security and supporting sustainable development. We stress the importance of cooperation on veterinary-sanitary and phytosanitary matters for agricultural products in order to facilitate trade and investment.

32. We take note of the thematic sectoral platforms as seen in the annex.

Advancing People-to-People Exchanges

33. Considering connectivity as a means of bringing countries, peoples and societies closer together, we believe the Belt and Road cooperation promotes exchanges, mutual learning and dialogue among different peoples, cultures and civilizations. We welcome efforts to expand people-to-people exchanges including those between the youth.

34. We emphasize the importance of strengthening cooperation in human resources development, education, vocational and professional training, and build up the capacity of our peoples to better adapt to the future of work, so as to promote employment and improve their livelihoods.

35. We look forward to further exchanges and cooperation in areas of science and technology, culture, arts, creative economy, rural development and folk crafts, archaeology and paleontology, protection of cultural and natural heritages, tourism, health, sports etc.

36. We welcome communication among parliaments, sister provinces and cities, think tanks, academia, media, civil societies, as well as exchanges among women, persons with disabilities, and cooperation on overseas workers.

Way Forward

37. We welcome the efforts to further promote bilateral and international cooperation with China under the Belt and Road Initiative. We envisage the Belt and Road Forum on regular basis with possible follow-up events.

38. We thank and congratulate China for hosting the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation and look forward to the 3rd Forum.

Annex

1. Economic corridors and other projects catalyzed and supported by connectivity:

(1) Addis Ababa-Djibouti economic corridor, including the development of industrial parks along the economic corridor

(2) Agua Negra Pass International Tunnel

(3) Baku-Tbilisi-Kars new railway line and Alyat free economic zone in Baku

(4) Brunei-Guangxi economic corridor

(5) China-Central Asia-West Asia economic corridor

(6) China-Europe Land-Sea Express Line

(7) China-Indochina Peninsula economic corridor, including Laos-China economic corridor

(8) China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan International Highway

(9) China-Laos-Thailand Railway Cooperation

(10) China-Malaysia Qinzhou Industrial Park

(11) China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor

(12) China-Myanmar economic corridor

(13) China-Pakistan economic corridor

(14) Eastern Economic Corridor in Thailand

(15) Economic corridor in Greater Mekong Subregion

(16) the EU Trans-European Transport Networks

(17) Europe-Caucasus-Asia International Transport corridor and TransCaspian International Transport Route

(18) the Industrial Park "Great Stone"

(19) International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)

(20) the Lake Victoria-Mediterranean Sea Navigation Line-Linkage Project (VICMED)

(21) the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport corridor

(22) Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park

(23) the Nepal-China Trans-Himalayan Multi-dimensional Connectivity Network, including Nepal-China cross-border railway

(24) New Eurasian Land Bridge

(25) the New International Land-Sea Trade Corridor of the China-Singapore (Chongqing) Demonstration Initiative on Strategic Connectivity

(26) Northern Corridor Trade Route in Africa linking the maritime port of Mombasa to countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa and Trans-Africa Highway

(27) North-South Passage Cairo-Capetown Pass-way

(28) the Port of Piraeus

(29) Port Sudan-Ethiopia Railway Connectivity

(30) Regional Comprehensive economic corridors in Indonesia

(31) the Suez Canal Economic Zone

(32) Transcontinental shipment of cargo using the capacities of the Northern Sea Route

(33) Transoceanic fiber optic cable

(34)"Two Corridors and One Belt" Framework

(35) Uzbekistan-Tajikistan-China International Highway

2. Sectoral multilateral cooperation initiatives and platforms:

(1) the Advisory Council of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation

(2) the Alliance of International Science Organizations in the Belt and Road Region

(3) Beijing Initiative for the Clean Silk Road

(4) Belt and Road Energy Partnership

(5) Belt and Road Initiative Tax Administration Cooperation Mechanism

(6) Belt and Road News Alliance

(7) Belt and Road Studies Network

(8) Digital Silk Road Initiative

(9) Guiding Principles on Financing the Development of the Belt and Road

(10) the International Academy of Science of the Silk Road

(11) International Coalition for Green Development on the Belt and Road

(12) Joint Statement on Pragmatic Cooperation in the Field of Intellectual Property Among Countries Along the Belt and Road

(13) Joint Working Group on China Railway Express to Europe

(14) Ningbo Initiative on the Maritime Silk Road Port Cooperation

3. Other relevant efforts referred to by participants:

(1) African Continental Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)

(2) Ancient Civilizations Forum initiated by Greece

(3) APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in 2019 in Chile

(4) Belt and Road Forum for international cooperation in Belarus

(5) Belt and Road lane for fast-track entry and exit at the land and air ports set up by Mongolia and interested countries

(6) the First Forum of Mayors of Silk Road Countries held in Kazakhstan in 2018

(7) the Global Silk Road Award initiated by Kazakhstan

(8) the initiative by Mongolia to establish an award that encourages young scholars and diplomats to promote the Belt and Road cooperation

(9) Pan-Arab Free Trade Agreement (PAFTA)

(10) the Santiago Climate Change Conference on its 25th Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP25) to the UNFCCC in 2019 in Chile

(11) Sustainable Blue Economy Conference in Kenya in 2018

(12) the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation

(13) the UNWTO International Meeting on the Silk Road Tourism in Greece in 2018

(14) the World Forum on inter-cultural dialogue within the framework of Baku Process

(15) the World Youth Forum held in Egypt in 2018

China hosted the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (BRF) in Beijing on 25-27 April 2019. Since the first BRF and during the second one, national governments, local authorities and enterprises reached a series of cooperation agreements, important measures and practical results. As the host country, China has put together the most representative outcomes, and formed a list of deliverables of the second BRF. The list includes 283 concrete results in six categories, namely, initiatives proposed or launched by the Chinese side, bilateral and multilateral documents signed during or immediately before the second BRF, multilateral cooperation mechanisms under the BRF framework, investment projects and project lists, financing projects, and projects by local authorities and enterprises.

I. Initiatives Proposed or Launched by the Chinese Side

1. The Chinese side issued the Belt and Road Initiative: Progress, Contributions and Prospects.

2. The Organizing Committee of the 2nd BRF issued the Report on the Findings and Recommendations from the First Meeting of the Advisory Council of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation.

3. China, relevant countries and international organizations, as well as representatives of academic and business communities jointly launched the Beijing Initiative for the Clean Silk Road.

4. The Chinese government will implement facilitation arrangements for border entry and exit for the Belt and Road.

5. China develops Silk Road theme bonds to facilitate bond market financing by domestic and foreign entities in support of the Belt and Road Initiative.

6. The China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China continue with the Belt and Road Special Lending Scheme.

7. The Ministry of Science and Technology of China and science, technology and innovation related ministries of relevant countries jointly announced the Cooperation Initiative on Silk Road of Innovation.

8. The Chinese government will continue to implement the Green Silk Road Envoys Program, which will train 1,500 environmental officials from the participating countries of the Belt and Road Initiative in the next three years. The BRI Environmental Big Data Platform was launched officially. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China established the Belt and Road Environmental Technology Exchange and Transfer Center.

9. The National Development and Reform Commission of China launched the Belt and Road Green Lighting Initiative with the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and launched the Belt and Road Green Cooling Initiative with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the Energy Foundation.

10. The Ministry of Finance of China published the Debt Sustainability Framework for participating countries of the Belt and Road Initiative, to jointly enhance debt management capacity with participating countries of the BRI, and promote sustainable financing, and sustainable and inclusive growth.

11. China Customs established a Belt and Road customs information sharing platform and achieved certificate of origin electronic data networking with Chile, Pakistan, Singapore and Georgia.

12. The Standardization Administration of China initiated the establishment of a national standards information platform among the Belt and Road partner countries to strengthen the exchange and sharing of standards information.

13. The Chinese government continues to implement the "Silk Road" Chinese Government Scholarship Program and increases scholarships for candidates pursuing Master's and PhD degrees at Chinese institutes of higher learning.

14. The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Belt and Road Master's Degree Fellowship Program.

15 China will initiate the experience sharing program for Belt and Road partner countries, inviting 10,000 representatives to China from these countries in the next five years, including those from political parties, political organizations, think tanks and social organizations, as well as senior political figures and scholars.

16. The Ministry of Science and Technology of China announced the Belt and Road talents exchange program, supporting 5,000 talents from China and BRI partner countries in innovation exchange and cooperation in the next five years.

17. China and BRI partner countries will jointly implement the Belt and Road publications promotion library program and the Belt and Road copyright transaction project.

18. China and UNESCO initiated and set up the Silk Road Research Grant project to support young researchers and scholars.

19. The National Development and Reform Commission of China and the United Nations Children's Fund jointly launched the Declaration on Accelerating the Sustainable Development Goals for Children through Shared Development in the Belt and Road partner countries.

20. The Red Cross Society of China continues with the implementation of the China-Pakistan First Aid Corridor Program in Pakistan.

21. China will work with relevant countries to jointly implement the Belt and Road South-South Cooperation Initiative on Climate Change.

22. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China issued the first Belt and Road Bankers Roundtable Mechanism (BRBR) green bond, and jointly released the Belt and Road Green Finance Index with relevant members of the BRBR mechanism including the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Credit Agricole Corporate and Investment Bank and the Mizuho Bank, to further enhance Belt and Road cooperation on green finance.

23. Hanban of China will carry out the "Chinese Bridge" Summer Camp for Youths in Belt and Road partner countries.

24. China will sponsor the first session of Belt and Road Legal Cooperation Research and Training Program, co-organize a seminar on business integrity and compliance with the World Bank, and hold an anti-corruption seminar for Belt and Road countries.

25. The Shanghai National Accounting Institute affiliated with the Ministry of Finance of China, together with the CAREC Institute, the Asian Development Bank and the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, will jointly launch the China-Central Asia Accounting Elites Exchange Program.

26. China will hold the Second China International Import Expo in 2019, and hold the Global E-Commerce Forum during the Expo.

II. Bilateral and Multilateral Documents Signed during or Immediately before the Second BRF

1. The Chinese government signed MOUs on Belt and Road cooperation with the governments of Equatorial Guinea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Jamaica, Peru, Italy, Barbados, Cyprus and Yemen.

2. The Chinese government signed cooperation plans or action plans with the governments of Serbia, Djibouti, Mongolia, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Papua New Guinea and the African Union, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

3. The Chinese government will sign the Cooperation Plan on Industrial Capacity and Investment with the government of Kazakhstan.

4. The Chinese government signed tax treaties and protocols with the governments of Kenya, Sweden and Chile.

5. The Chinese government signed transport cooperation documents with the governments of Pakistan, Liberia, Nepal, Georgia, Belarus, Armenia Saudi Arabia Laos and Kazakhstan.

6. The Chinese government signed cooperation agreements on science, technology and innovation with the governments of Laos, Bulgaria, Latvia, Salvador and Panama, and signed the Action Plan on China-Israel Innovation Cooperation with the government of Israel.

7. The Chinese government signed cultural exchange and cooperation agreements with the governments of Niger, Pakistan, Namibia, Nigeria, Mauritius and Guinea, and will sign cooperation documents on preventing theft, clandestine excavation and illicit import and export of cultural property with the governments of Nepal and Romania.

8. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China signed the MOU with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific on the Belt and Road Initiative for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

9. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the MOU on Establishing the China-Hungary Cooperation Center under the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation Plan of the Belt and Road Initiative with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary, and signed the Bilateral Action Plan on Digital Silk Road Cooperation with the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary.

10. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the China-Laos Economic Corridor cooperation document with the Ministry of Plan and Investment of the Lao PDR, signed a cooperation plan on China-Myanmar Economic Corridor with the Ministry of Planning and Finance of Myanmar, and signed the Cooperation Plan on Promoting the Regional Comprehensive Economic Corridors with the Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs of Indonesia.

11. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the MOUs on developing third-party market cooperation with the Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs of Austria, the Federal Department of Finance and the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research of the Swiss Confederation, and signed the MOU on the Implementation Framework for Enhancing China-Singapore Third Party Market Cooperation with the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Singapore.

12. The National Development and Reform Commission of China issued the Joint Statement on the Study of China-EU Railway-based Integrated Transport Channels with the European Commission.

13. The Belt and Road Initiative Center of the National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the 2020-2022 cooperation plan on key areas with the Ministry of Economy and Development of Greece.

14. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the MOU on Strengthening Cooperation on Jointly Building the Belt and Road Initiative with Siemens Aktiengesellschaft of Germany.

15. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, the Ministry of Agriculture of Bangladesh, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Cambodia, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation of Myanmar, the Ministry of Agricultural and Livestock Development of Nepal, the Ministry of National Food Security and Research of Pakistan, the Department of Agriculture of the Philippines, the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand, the Ministry of Agriculture of Sri Lanka and the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development of Viet Nam jointly released the Statement of Intent for Cooperation on Promoting Specification-setting for Pesticide Quality under the Belt and Road Initiative.

16. The seven national railways of China, Belarus, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Poland and Russia signed the Rules of Procedures for the Joint Working Group for Transport of China-Europe Container Trains.

17. The Ministry of Transport of China signed the MOU on Cooperation for Promoting the Effective Implementation of Maritime Labor Convention, 2006 through the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Initiative with the International Labor Organization. The State Post Bureau of China signed the MOUs on Strengthening Cooperation in the Postal and Express Delivery Services in Response to the Belt and Road Initiative with the National Post Company of Iran, the Ministry of National Development of Hungary and the Pakistan Post.

18. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of China signed the MOU on the South-South Cooperation Under the Framework of the Belt and Road Initiative with the International Labor Organization.

19. The Ministry of Emergency Management of China signed the MOU on Developing South-South Cooperation on Work Safety under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative with the International Labor Organization.

20. The National Commission of Supervision of China signed the MOUs on anti-corruption cooperation with its counterparts of the Philippines and Thailand.

21. The People's Bank of China and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development signed the MOU on strengthening investment and financing cooperation in third-party markets.

22. The Ministry of Commerce of China signed the Trilateral Cooperation Agreement on Renewable Energy in Ethiopia and Sri Lanka with the United Nations Development Programme, signed the MOU on the Establishment of the Working Group for the Promotion of Unimpeded Trade with the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Viet Nam, signed the MOU on the Establishment of Representative Offices of Trade Promotion Organizations in Each Other's Country with the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic, and signed the MOU on the Establishment of Trade Remedy Cooperation Mechanism with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile.

23. The Ministry of Commerce of China signed the MOU on the Formulation of the Five-Year Development Plan for Economic and Trade Cooperation with the Ministry of Investment and Foreign Economic Relations of Myanmar, and signed the MOU on the Plan of Cooperation from 2019 to 2023 with the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Viet Nam.

24. The Ministry of Finance of China signed bilateral cooperation agreements on accounting and audit supervision with the Financial Service Agency and the Certified Public Accountants and Auditing Oversight Board of Japan, and the Securities Commission Malaysia, to strengthen cross-border accounting and audit regulatory cooperation.

25. The China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission signed the MOUs on supervisory cooperation with the Central Bank of Armenia, National Bank of Serbia, National Bank of Georgia, Astana Financial Services Authority (Kazakhstan), Bank of Mauritius and Labuan Financial Services Authority (Malaysia).

26. The Ministry of Science and Technology of China signed cooperation documents on science, technology and innovation with the Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology of Austria, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, the Secretariat of Energy of Mexico, the Agency for International Development Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel, the Ministry of Business, Research and Religious Affairs of Greece, the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment of New Zealand, and signed cooperation documents on joint research center and joint lab with the Agency for Science and Technology of Uzbekistan, the Ministry of Education and Culture of Uruguay, the Department of Science and Technology of South Africa, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Space of Israel, the Council for Science and Technology of Malta and the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia.

27. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China signed industry and information technology cooperation documents with the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary, the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications of Brazil, the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications of Chile and the Ministry of ICT and Innovation of Rwanda.

28. China Customs signed customs and inspection and quarantine cooperation documents with UNIDO and the General Department of Customs and Excise of Cambodia, and signed relevant AEO mutual recognition cooperation documents with the Federal Customs Service of Russia, the State Revenue Committee of the Ministry of Finance of Kazakhstan, the State Customs Committee of Belarus and the Customs General Administration of Mongolia.

29. The National Energy Administration of China signed energy cooperation documents with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland and the Ministry of Energy of Bulgaria.

30. The China National Space Administration signed the Declaration of Intent to Cooperate on the Belt and Road Space Information Corridor with the United Nations represented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs.

31. The China Development Bank signed facility cooperation agreements respectively with the Ministry of Finance of Angola and the Ministry of Finance of Belarus.

32. The Export-Import Bank of China signed the MOU for the promotion of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development through the Belt and Road Initiative for bridging the digital divide with the International Telecommunication Union.

33. The Export-Import Bank of China signed the agreements on third-party market cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative with the Mizuho Bank and the Standard Chartered Bank.

34. The Ministry of Water Resources of China, the Standardization Administration of China and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization signed the MOU for cooperation on promoting international standards for small hydroelectric power plants.

35. The Standardization Administration of China signed the Action Plan (2019-2021) on Technical Cooperation Program with the Saudi Standards, Metrology, and Quality Organization. The China-Russia Civil Aircraft Standards Coordination Working Group signed the Mutual Recognition Catalogue of China-Russia Civil Aircraft Standards. The Certification and Accreditation Administration of China signed a memorandum of agreement with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and Ente Nazionale Mechanizzazione Agricola.

36. The National Radio and Television of China and the Arab States Broadcasting Union signed the Framework Agreement for Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative.

37. The Development Research Center of the State Council of China jointly approved with 54 international members and partners of the Silk Road Think Tank Network the Three-Year Work Plan for the Silk Road Think Tank Network (2019-2021).

38. The China NGO Network for International Exchanges will launch the Silk Road Community Building Initiative, encouraging NGOs along the Belt and Road to establish 500 pairs of cooperation partnerships, and undertaking 200 livelihood cooperation projects in developing countries along the Belt and Road in the next two years.

39. The World Tourism Cities Federation and the West Africa Tourism Organization signed a cooperation framework agreement.

40. The Chinese side further developed the Maritime Silk Road Index by releasing the CHINA-CEEC Trade Index (CCTI) and Ningbo Port Index (NPI).

41. China and Russia piloted the "one-unit" financial settlement financing rules for international rail transport.

42. China, the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation and Finance Center for South-South Cooperation set up the "Air Silk Road" South-South Partnership Alliance and signed a cooperation agreement.

III. Multilateral Cooperation Mechanisms under the BRF Framework

1. China, together with 33 representatives from government transportation and customs departments, key port enterprises, port authorities and terminal operators from 13 countries, including Egypt, Sri Lanka, UAE, Latvia, Slovenia, Belgium, Spain, Fiji, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Romania and Singapore, jointly set up the Maritime Silk Road Port Cooperation Mechanism and released the Ningbo Initiative on the Maritime Silk Road Port Cooperation.

2. Major financial institutions of China, the UK, France, Singapore, Pakistan, the UAE, Hong Kong SAR and other countries and regions signed up to the Green Investment Principles for Belt and Road Development.

3. The Ministry of Finance of China in collaboration with the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Corporación Andina de Fomento, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the European Investment Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the World Bank Group established the Multilateral Cooperation Center for Development Finance.

4. The National Development and Reform Commission of China and the Union Nations Development Programme co-initiated the Belt and Road Innovation and Development Platform project, authorizing the China Development Bank to execute in name of the Innovation and Development Center under the project.

5. China and the accounting standards-setting bodies of Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia, Laos, Nepal, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Viet Nam jointly established the Belt and Road Accounting Standards Cooperation Mechanism and launched the Initiative on Promoting Accounting Standards Cooperation among Participating Countries of the BRI.

6. The State Taxation Administration of China, the State Revenue Committee of the Ministry of Finance of Kazakhstan, and the competent tax authorities of other related countries (regions) held the first conference of the Belt and Road Initiative Tax Administration Cooperation Forum (BRITACOF), signed the MOU on the Establishment of the Belt and Road Initiative Tax Administration Cooperation Mechanism, and established the Belt and Road Initiative Tax Administration Cooperation Mechanism (BRITACOM).

7. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China jointly launched the BRI International Green Development Coalition with the environmental departments of 25 countries (including Angola, Armenia, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Gambia, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kenya, Laos, Maldives, Mauritius, Mongolia, Myanmar, Niger, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Togo and United Arab Emirates), international organizations (including the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe), research institutions and businesses.

8. The China National Intellectual Property Administration and the intellectual property authorities of 49 BRI partner countries including the Federal Service for Intellectual Property of Russia, the Intellectual Property Organization of Pakistan, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Lao PDR, the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore, the Polish Patent Office, the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office, the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia and the Department of Intellectual Property of the Ministry of Commerce of Thailand, jointly announced the Joint Statement on Pragmatic Cooperation in the Field of Intellectual Property among Countries along the Belt and Road.

9. China established the Belt and Road Energy Partnership with 28 countries including Algeria, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Bolivia, Equatorial Guinea, Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Malta, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Venezuela, Gambia, Cape Verde, the Republic of Congo, Mongolia, Suriname, Tonga, Cambodia, Chad, Serbia, Kyrgyzstan and Hungary.

10. The National Development and Reform Commission of China (China Center for Urban Development) jointly built the Belt and Road Sustainable Cities Alliance with the UN-Habitat, the WHO, UCLG-ASPAC, Eurocities and the Energy Foundation.

11. The China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, China Chamber of International Commerce, together with the industrial and commercial organizations and legal service agencies from over 30 countries and regions including the European Union, Italy, Singapore, Russia, Belgium, Mexico, Malaysia, Poland, Bulgaria and Myanmar jointly established the International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization (ICDPASO).

12. The China Earthquake Administration, together with its counterparts from 13 countries and relevant international organizations including Armenia, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, the Asian Seismological Commission and the African Seismological Commission, jointly established the Working Mechanism for the Belt and Road Earthquake Risk Reduction Cooperation.

13. China Customs initiated a "Customs-Train Operators Partnership for Secure and Expedited Clearance of CR Express Carried Goods (C-TOP).

14. The China Development Bank established the Association of China-LAC Development Financial Institutions. 15. The Chinese National Commission for UNESCO and UNESCO co-organized the International Youth Forum on Creativity and Heritage along the Silk Roads, and released the Changsha Initiative.

16. The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Alliance of International Science Organizations in the Belt and Road Region with 37 national scientific institutions in the Belt and Road Region and international organizations, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences of Belgium, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), the University of Chile, the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the University of Auckland, the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the University of Peradeniya of Sri Lanka, the National Science and Technology Development Agency of Thailand and the European Academy of Sciences and Arts.

17. The National Museum of China and 157 museums or institutes from 33 countries and regions including Russia, the UK, Italy, Azerbaijan and Ethiopia jointly established the International Alliance of Museums of the Silk Road (IAMS) and signed the Framework Agreement on IAMS Exhibition Cooperation.

18. The National Library of China and libraries from 26 countries and regions including Mongolia, Singapore, Brunei and Tajikistan jointly established the Silk Road International Library Alliance and adopted the Chengdu Initiative of the Silk Road International Library Alliance.

19. The China Shanghai International Arts Festival and 159 arts festivals and institutions from 40 countries and regions including Croatia, Bulgaria, Morocco and Saudi Arabia, jointly set up the Network of Silk Road Arts Festivals and published the 2018 Future Plans of the Network of Silk Road Arts Festivals.

20. The China Arts and Entertainment Group and 106 theaters and cultural entities from 37 countries and regions including Russia, the EU, Japan and the Philippines, jointly set up the Silk Road International League of Theatres (SRILT) and adopted the Initiative on the Mutual Development of SRILT.

21. The National Art Museum of China and 21 art museums or major fine arts institutions from 18 countries including Russia, the Republic of Korea, Greece, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Viet Nam, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Bangladesh, Hungary, Turkey, Moldova, Armenia and Poland, jointly founded the Silk Road International Alliance of Art Museums and Galleries.

22. Relevant Chinese think tanks jointly launched the Belt and Road Studies Network (BRSN) with Kazakhstan's Nazarbayev University, Indonesia's Center for Strategic and International Studies, Bulgaria's National Association for the Belt and Road, the African Center for Economic Transformation, the East Asian Institute of the National University of Singapore, the New Silk Road Institute of the Republic of Korea, Russia's Valdai Discussion Club and Harvard's Ash Center of the United States.

23. The Belt and Road Publishing Cooperation was co-founded by China and publishers, academic institutions and professional associations of relevant countries and regions. The Belt and Road Initiative Documentary Consortium was jointly founded by China and relevant countries. The Belt and Road News Network was jointly developed by the People's Daily and media organizations from relevant countries. The International Communication Award on the Belt and Road was launched.

24. The Xinhua New Agency and 32 institutions including Polska Agencja Prasowa, Class Editori, the Interfax Group and the Azerbaijan State News Agency jointly established the Belt and Road Economic Information Partnership.

25. China and the United Nations Development Programme jointly carried out the BRI Sustainable Investment Facility Project and conducted pilot projects in such countries as Ethiopia.

26. The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Silk Road Environment Program, under which scientists from countries along the Belt and Road study the pathways and scientific solutions of green Silk Road development.

27. The China-IMF Capacity Development Center, a collaborative project by the People's Bank of China and International Monetary Fund, reached consensus with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development on jointly strengthening capacity building for the monetary authorities in Belt and Road partner countries, with the first joint training session held in mid-April at the IMF Joint Vienna Institute. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China will provide training on economic policies for member institutions under the Belt and Road Regular Inter-bank Cooperation Mechanism, and the Bank of China will continue to organize Belt and Road international financial cooperation and exchange seminars.

IV. Investment Projects and Project Lists

1. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed documents on priority projects lists of production capacity and investment cooperation respectively with relevant government departments of Kazakhstan, Egypt, Mozambique, Cambodia, Laos and the Philippines, and signed the framework agreement of production capacity with the government of Uganda.

2. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the document on the projects list (3rd round) of developing third-party market cooperation with the Treasury of France.

3. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the document on the priority promotion projects list (2nd round) with the Ministry of Trade and Industry of the Czech Republic.

4. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the document on the early harvest projects list of China-Myanmar Economic Corridor with the Ministry of Plan and Finance of Myanmar.

5. The National Development and Reform Commission of China signed the memorandum of cooperation on construction of the connection project of Nongkai-Vientiane railway with the Ministry of Transportation of Thailand and the Ministry of Public Works and Transportation of the Lao PDR.

6. The China Communications Construction Company signed the MOU on East-Coast Railway industrial park, infrastructure, logistic centers and development cooperation along the line with the Malaysian Investment Promotion Agency.

7. The China Railway Group Limited handed over the Feasibility Study Report (Technical Part) of the Muse-Mandalay Railway to the Ministry of Transport and Communications of Myanmar.

8. The Silk Road Fund of China established co-investment platforms with the International Company for Water and Power Projects of Saudi Arabia, the Three Gorges Corporation and the International Finance Corporation of China and the General Electric of the United States. The Silk Road Fund is establishing a co-investment platform with the Surbana Jurong Private Limited of Singapore.

9. The Silk Road Fund launched co-investment funds with the European Investment Fund and the Trail Capital respectively, and participated in the KKR Global Impact Fund, the Warburg Pincus Financial Sector Fund, and the African Infrastructure Investment Fund 3.

10. The Silk Road Fund invested in the DEWA Concentrated Solar Power Project, the Astana International Exchange and the Yamal LNG Project, and co-financed Oman's National Fiber Optic Broadband Network Project with the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. The Silk Road Fund is investing in the Samarkand International Convention and Cultural Tourism Project and an Uzbek oil and gas project.

11. The China Investment Corporation co-launches with relevant countries and enterprises bilateral funds including the China-US Industrial Cooperation Fund, the China-Japan Industrial Cooperation Fund, the China-Italy Industrial Cooperation Fund and the China-France Industrial Cooperation Fund.

12. The China Everbright Group will co-launch the Belt and Road Initiative Green Investment Fund with financial institutions of relevant countries.

13. The China Investment Corporation invests in Logicor, Mid Europa Fund V, Changi AIP, the Russian part of the cross-border railway bridge over Heilongjiang River, Nam Dinh 1 BOT Thermal Power Plant Project and Vena Energy.

14. The China International Capital Corporation and the Moscow Exchange signed a memorandum on strategic cooperation and assisted Kazatomprom in completing its GDR listing on LSE.

15. The China Reinsurance (Group) Corporation and Fildelidade-Companhia De Seguros, S.A. will sign a memorandum of understanding on insurance and reinsurance business related to the BRI.

16. The China Development Bank and the Hareer City and Boubyan Island Development Agency of Kuwait signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Development and Construction Cooperation of the "Hareer City and Five Islands" between the Hareer City and Boubyan Island Development Agency of Kuwait and the China Development Bank.

17. The China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation signed the Strategic Cooperation Framework Agreement with the MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. and BNP Paribas.

V. Financing Projects

1. The China Development Bank signed loan agreements respectively with relevant institutions of Cambodia, Kazakhstan and Turkey for highway, mining and power projects, and entered into financing cooperation agreements respectively with the Belarus Bank, Banco Security of Chile and the People's Bank of Sri Lanka.

2. The China-Africa Development Fund signed an agreement on automobile investment in Africa with relevant parties including Foton Motor.

3. The Export-Import Bank of China signed loan agreements on road projects with the Ministry of Finance of Serbia, the Ministry of Economy and Finance of Cambodia and the KazAvtoZhol of Kazakhstan respectively, on bridge rail link and pipeline projects with the Ministry of Finance of Bangladesh, on photovoltaic and hydroelectric power plant projects with the Ministry of Finance of Argentina and the Ministry of Economy and Finance of the Republic of Guinea respectively, on steel plant project with the Ministry of Development Planning of Bolivia, on railway projects with the Ministry of Transport of Egypt and the Federal Ministry of Finance of Nigeria respectively, and signed working capital facility agreements with the AL Khalij Commercial Bank of Qatar and the Global Bank Corporation of Panama.

4. The Export-Import Bank of China provided syndicated loans to the MTN Nigeria Communications with the Credit Suisse AG, and to the Coral South FLNG Project in Mozambique together with the KEXIM, the SACE and the COFACE.

VI. Projects by Local Authorities and Enterprises

Local authorities and enterprises built the China-Serbia Friendship Industrial Park in Serbia; developed Industry and Sci-tech Cooperation Project of China-UAE Industrial Capacity Cooperation Demonstration Zone; developed Cambodian Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone industry upgrade and social development cooperation program; invested in and constructed Zhongtai New Silk Road Tajikistan Agriculture Industrial Park in Tajikistan; implemented the Phase of Diamniadio Integrated Industrial Park in Senegal; upgraded and constructed the Project of Chan Mya Shwe Pyi Bus Terminal in Mandalay, Myanmar; invested in and constructed the Belt and Road Logistics and Trade Complex in the United Arab Emirates; acquired Tata Steel Southeast Asian Plants in Singapore and Thailand; undertook with Saudi Aramco the Fine Chemicals and Raw Materials Engineering Project in Panjin, Liaoning Province, China; built Tharcoal block-178MTPA open-pit coal mine & 2*660MW coal-based power plant integrate project in Pakistan; invested in and constructed the project of high-performance radial tires with an annual output of 13.62 million in Serbia; developed 1.5mtpa cement clinker project in Nepal; engaged in laterite nickel ore for battery-grade nickel chemical (nickel sulfate crystal with an annual output of 50,000 tons of nickel) production in Indonesia; constructed PTA/PET project in Saudi Arabia; developed a healthcare medical diagnostic integrated project in Kenya; and constructed China-Uzbekistan Medical Science and Technology Park in Uzbekistan.

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